India, a land of diverse cultures and traditions, celebrates numerous festivals yearly. Among these, Navratri and Durga Puja are vibrant and spiritually significant events. Let’s explore their origins, rituals, and unique flavours.

Navratri 2023 and Durga Puja 2023 are two festivals that honour Goddess Durga, the supreme deity of power and strength in Hinduism. However, these two festivals have critical differences in origin, duration, rituals, and celebration styles.

Origin and Duration

Navratri, which means “nine nights” in Sanskrit, is a festival that celebrates the nine forms of Goddess Durga on the nine days of the bright fortnight of the lunar month of Ashwin. This period usually falls in the Gregorian months of September and October. Navratri is celebrated twice yearly, once in spring (Chaitra or Vasanta Navratri) and once in autumn (Sharada or Shardiya Navratri). The latter is considered to be more important and popular among Hindus. Navratri 2023 will begin on October 15 and end on October 24.

Durga Puja, which means “worship of Durga”, is a festival that commemorates the victory of Goddess Durga over the demon Mahishasura, who had obtained a boon from Lord Brahma that he could not be killed by any god, devil, or human. The gods created Durga, a powerful goddess with ten arms and weapons to defeat him. She fought with Mahishasura for nine days and nights and finally killed him on the tenth day. Durga Puja is celebrated for five days, from the sixth day (Shashti) to the tenth day (Dashami) of the bright fortnight of the lunar month of Ashwin. Durga Puja, also known as Durgotsava or Sharadotsav, is mainly celebrated in West Bengal, Assam, Tripura, Odisha, and Bihar. Durga Puja 2023 will begin on October 20 and end on October 24.

Rituals and Practices

Navratri involves various rituals and practices that vary from region to region. Some of the common ones are:

1. Ghatasthapana: This is the ritual of installing a clay pot filled with water, grains, coins, and a coconut on the first day (Pratipada) of Navratri. The pot symbolizes Goddess Durga and is worshipped throughout the nine days.

    2. Shodashopachara: This ritual offers sixteen items to Goddess Durga, such as flowers, incense, lamps, food, clothes, etc. This is done every day during Navratri.

    3. Navadurga Puja: This is the ritual of worshipping the nine forms of Goddess Durga on each day of Navratri. The nine forms are Shailputri, Brahmacharini, Chandraghanta, Kushmanda, Skandamata, Katyayani, Kalaratri, Mahagauri, and Siddhidatri.

    4. Fasting: Many devotees observe fasting during Navratri to show their devotion to Goddess Durga. They abstain from eating meat, eggs, onion, garlic, grains, alcohol, etc. They only consume fruits, milk products, nuts, and certain flours.

    5. Garba and Dandiya: These are traditional dances performed by people during Navratri. Garba is a circular dance that involves clapping hands and moving feet in sync with the music. Dandiya is a dance that consists of hitting sticks with partners in a rhythmic manner. These dances are popular in Gujarat and other parts of India.

    Durga Puja also involves various rituals and practices that vary from region to region. Some of the common ones are:

    1. Mahalaya: This is the day when Goddess Durga is believed to have descended from heaven to earth to fight Mahishasura. Today, people listen to a radio program called Mahishasura Mardini that narrates the story of Durga’s battle with Mahishasura. They also offer prayers to their ancestors (pitris) by performing tarpan.

    2. Bodhon: This is the ritual of awakening Goddess Durga by chanting mantras and offering flowers on the sixth day (Shashti) of Durga Puja. This marks the beginning of the main festivities.

    3. Anjali: This is the ritual of offering flowers to Goddess Durga while chanting prayers.

    4. Pandals and Idols: Elaborate decorations and artistic idols adorn streets and homes.

    5. Sindoor Khela: Married women smear vermilion on each other as a symbol of marital bliss.


    Navratri and Durga Puja celebrate the divine feminine energy, but their flavours differ. Navratri has vibrant dances, fasting, and Durga Puja with grand pandals and artistic idols. Whichever festival you embrace, may it fill your heart with devotion and joy!